Melatonin is synthesised primarily by the pineal gland and, to a lesser extent, by the retina, particularly the photoreceptors, during the night and at lower levels during the day. Melatonin has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant protective properties. It has been proposed that the use of melatonin as an oral supplement was increased during COVID‑19 to reduce stress. Furthermore, the sleep regulating, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects may reduce stress on the immune system which may reduce infection morbidity and mortality. Melatonin is one of the nutrients that may help reduce the severity of COVID‑19. This narrative review discusses the potential role of melatonin in COVID‑19, with the highlight of using it to improve sleep and reduce stress during the pandemic and as a part of treatment of hospitalised patients with COVID‑19.
Background Coronavirus disease (COVID‑19) is an infectious acute respiratory distress syndrome that has greatly affected the health of people across the world, including Pakistan. This research is focused on the spread of disease, psychological and physiological impact, utilisation of natural regimes, vaccination efficacy and their side effects in the population of Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods An online survey-based study was conducted consisting of 14 research questions about COVID‑19 and disseminated among people through email and social networking sites. The results were analysed through SPSS.
Results Survey results showed that COVID‑19 significantly affected the Pakistani population and was found in 58.1% of respondents. Major symptoms appeared as fever (72.2%), cough (69.4%), shortness of breath (69.4%) and loss of taste and smell (64.5%). Panadol (69.6%) and taking steam (65%) improved the condition. Most of the population (81.4%) was treated at home. 70.4% of the population used allopathic and natural treatment in combination. 82.6% of the population did not receive any prophylaxis treatment. Ginger (58.9%), honey (57.9%) and lemon (51.9%) were helpful in fighting disease. 89.2% of the population found vaccination helpful for the prevention of disease. Pain at the injection site (49.3%), body aches (44%) and fever (40.1%) were major side effects observed upon vaccination.
Conclusion COVID‑19 significantly affects the lifestyle of people in Pakistan. Wearing masks and hand washing are commonly found among the general population. Though the severity of the disease has declined with the passage of time, it produced a vast impact on people’s psychological, physiological and social life.
These abstracts are brief summaries of articles in recent issues of medical journals. Articles selected are of a general nature for the information of practitioners of naturopathy and herbal medicine. A dominant theme is often present throughout the journals which will be reflected in the reviews.
The AJHNM-based CPD questionnaire system is a voluntary system designed to assist members in the accumulation of NHAA CPD hours. Each question refers to an article in this issue of the Australian Journal of Herbal and Naturopathic Medicine. Hours accumulated through completion of these questions should be recorded in the NHAA CPD diary. The completion of answering each issue’s questions qualifies for 4 hours within the Formal Learning category. Your completed CPD diary should be returned with your membership renewal at the end of the financial year. For further information, please see the NHAA CPD Guide on the NHAA website www.nhaa.org.au.