Many reports are occurring concerning areas of purpuric/purple skin and purple toe lesions in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) (Figure 1). Wound care providers are being asked if these skin lesions are forms of Deep Tissue Pressure Injury and/or “skin failure”. Early reports of COVID-19 related skin changes included rashes, acral areas of erythema with vesicles or pustules (pseudo-chilblain), other vesicular eruptions, urticarial lesions, maculopapular eruptions, and livedo or necrosis.1-4 The pattern and presentation of skin manifestations with COVID-19 is more than rashes. The purpose of this paper is to guide the wound care clinician in determining if the “purple skin” being seen is a deep tissue pressure injury or a cutaneous manifestation of COVID-19.
Objective To examine the evidence related to the effectiveness of topical analgesic and topical local anesthetic agents for reducing pain associated with chronic leg ulcers.
Methods A systematic search and review of the literature were undertaken using key search terms such as leg ulcers, topical anesthetics, topical analgesics, and pain. Six databases were electronically searched for articles published between January 1990 and August 2019.
Results A total of 23 articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using content analysis. Most of the included studies were randomised controlled trials; however, the reported methodology for most of studies was poor, and so the validity and reliability of the evidence are uncertain. Lidocaine/prilocaine cream, ibuprofen foam, and morphine gel were the most examined topical agents. Lidocaine/prilocaine cream significantly improved wound-related pain compared with all other studied agents. For topical analgesic agents, ibuprofen foam also reduced chronic leg ulcer pain significantly, whereas morphine gel was ineffective.
Conclusions Lidocaine/prilocaine cream and ibuprofen foam are effective agents for reducing wound-related pain associated with chronic leg ulcers. Effective use of topical agents could reduce the need for systemic pain relief agents, mitigating potential adverse effects, while giving clinicians another treatment option to manage wound-related pain associated with chronic leg ulcers.
This contribution presents a literature review of therapeutic patient education (TPE) in addition to providing a summary of an oral presentation given by two wound care specialists at a European Congress. It relates this to models of care in nursing science and to other research that contributes to this approach at the core of healthcare practice.